It is a branch of dentistry that studies the tissue around the tooth and the diseases related to it. Periodontics concerns all soft tissues (periodontal ligament and gum) and hard tissues (cement and alveolar bone) that surround the tooth and ensure that, when healthy, it is stable in the alveolar arch.
The disease that affects the periodontium is generically called periodontitis or pyorrhea.
Non-surgical periodontal therapy
The recent therapeutic indications of the American Academy of Periodontology for initial periodontitis, favor a non-invasive treatment, and therefore non-surgical, which consists of a thorough oral hygiene with ultrasounds (to remove the supragingival calculus), followed by smoothing the root manually with special instruments called curettes (scaling and root planing), which have the task of removing tartar and bacterial toxins from the root surface.
Resective periodontal surgery
It is a technique that allows you to reshape the alveolar bone around the teeth, removing all bone irregularities which cause alterations of the gingival morphology, (commonly known as periodontal pockets) because of the proliferation of bacteria and the periodontal inflammation. The respective surgery can permanently remove the periodontal pockets that are too deep to be accessed normally with non-surgical techniques. The elimination of abnormal bone and gingival tissue, together with hygiene at home and routine professional controls, prevent the inflammatory state and the subsequent resorption of tissues, protecting the stability of the teeth
Regenerative periodontal surgery (GTR)
Today, the new regenerative techniques allow to predictably regenerate the bone tissue lost due to periodontal disease through the use of membranes, biomaterials or chemicals that facilitate the formation of new bone tissue. With these procedures and in situations appropriately selected, it is possible to achieve the restoration of the bone as it was prior to the illness.
Gingival tissue regeneration
The retraction of the gingival tissue gradually exposes the roots of the teeth, by increasing the sensitivity and susceptibility to root caries. To restore normal mucogingival functions it is necessary to reconstruct the gingival tissue by micro-invasive surgical procedures that allow you to restore health and dental stability with important aesthetic results.